When you get pregnant with placenta previa, doctors usually will tell you that the baby can not be born normally but it only can be born through caesarean section. What is Placenta Previa? Why we can perform normal delivery if there plasenta previa in pregnancy? Let's understand more about placenta previa.
Placenta is the place where the baby grows and develops in womb. The placenta is wrapped around the baby to keep it safe. Its function is as supplier of nutrients, oxygen and as protection from impact, germs or diseases that threaten the fetus. The placenta should be embedded at the top of the uterus. But in cases of placenta previa, placent implant in lower part of uterus. This situation will block the birth canal for the baby.
The theory states that in placenta previa case, there are three possible locations around lower uterine segment that can cover cervical canal. Three possible locations are placenta totally covered the birth canal (placenta previa totalis), covering most of birth canal (placenta previa partialis) or simply embedded around the edge of the bottom of uterus.
The Cause of Plasenta Previa
There is no direct cause of placenta previa. But from various medical sources, there are obstetric factors that will cause the occurrence of placenta previa. The first factor is age. If you get pregnant when you are still too young, sometime the endometrium is not ready. When you get pregnant above 35 years old, the endometrium will be less fertile.
The placenta is not small, its diameter about 20 cm when it's out of the womb, it weighs about 500-1000 grams and full of tissue that contains blood vessels and membranes. These blood vessels are very sensitive to stimulation, especially during late pregnancy (above 7 months)
Symptoms of Placenta Previa
Pregnant women (above 7 months) experience sudden bleeding from vagina. Some bleeding in pregnancy with placenta previa is not accompanied by abdominal pain, occurring at any time especially when doing activities. The older age of the pregnancy, then the bottom of uterus will be more sensitive to receive stimulation. Consequently, the placenta can separated little by little before the delivery.
Because, parts that separated bit by bit will cause bleeding. This bleeding can disrupt delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the baby. The bleeding also cause levels of hemoglobine of the mother decreased (anemia). In placenta previa, abnormality in position of fetus is frequently happen.
Doctors usually use womb Ultrasound (USG) to determine that bleeding in pregnancy is due to placenta previa. Ultrasound is not harmful to fetus.
What to do when pregnant women have placenta previa?
- Bed rest
Bed rest is very recommended when bleeding occurs. The goal is to stop the removal of placenta that is happening little by little before its time. By lying on the bed, the condition of the muscles of uterus is relaxing.
- Prevents premature delivery
Contraction stimulation feel like stomach cramps in pregnant women. When there are contractions accompanied by bleeding, then pregnant women with placenta previa should immediately seek help from doctors. Next time, the pregnancy will be monitored closely, both the condition of fetus, hemorrhage and maternal health situation. In placenta previa case, sometime when the bleeding continuously happen, the baby had been born prematurely. If this happen, the risk of maturity of baby's lungs function is high.
- Nutrition Needs
Pregnant women with placenta previa will have problem with their low levels of hemoglobin, because of the bleeding. Plenty of food from dark green vegetables such as spinach, kale, cassava leaves, collards, egg, fish, tofu and meat will help to increase level of hemoglobin. Drink milk can also increase endurance. Eat fresh fruit and drink a lot of mineral water is also good during pregnancy.
- Mental preparation
There are a lot of pregnant women with placenta previa must stay in hospital. Pass the time during bed rest in hospital something entertaining, such as reading about health, embroidery, listening to music and read books about baby. Anxiety of mother during pregnancy can affect treatment. Too stress and tension will stimulate uterine contractions or cramps in stomach. Partner must also give mental support to his wife during treatment period.
- Cost Preparation
The only way to give birth in Pregnancy with Placenta previa is only through cesarean delivery. Cost preparation should have been done in early pregnancy.
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